Peter Scherpelz and Giulia Galli
Surface defects created and probed with scanning tunneling microscopes are a promising platform for 1 atomic-scale electronics and quantuminformation technology applications. Using first-principles calculations we demonstrate how to engineer dangling bond (DB) defects on hydrogenated Si(100) surfaces, which give rise to isolated impurity states that can be used in atomic-scale devices. In particular, we show that sample thickness and biaxial strain can serve as control parameters to design the electronic properties of DB defects. While in thick Si samples the neutral DB state is resonant with bulk valence bands, ultrathin samples (1–2 nm) lead to an isolated impurity state in the gap; similar behavior is seen for DB pairs and DB wires. Strain further isolates the DB from the valence band, with the response to strain heavily dependent on sample thickness. These findings suggest new methods for tuning the properties of defects on surfaces for electronic and quantum information applications. Finally, we present a consistent and unifying interpretation of many results presented in the literature for DB defects on hydrogenated silicon surfaces, rationalizing apparent discrepancies between different experiments and simulations.
Xujun Zhao, Jiyuan Li, Xikai Jiang, Dmitry Karpeev, Olle Heinonen, Barry Smith, Juan P. Hernandez-Ortiz, and Juan J. de Pablo
An efficient parallel Stokes’s solver has been developed for complete description of hydrodynamic interactions between Brownian particles in bulk and confined geomteries. A Langevin description of the particle dynamics is adopted, where the long-range interactions are included using a Green’s function formalism. A scalable parallel computational approach is presented, where the general geometry Stokeslet is calculated following a matrix-free highly-efficient iterative finite-element Stokes’ solver for the accurate treatment of long-range hydrodynamic interactions in arbitrary confined geometries. A combination of mid-point time integration of the Brownian stochastic differential equation, the parallel Stokes’ solver, and a Chebyshev polynomial approximation for the fluctuation-dissipation theorem lead to an O(N) parallel algorithm. We illustrate the new algorithm in the context of the dynamics of confined polymer solutions under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. The method is then extended to treat suspended finite size particles of arbitrary shape in any geometry using an Immersed Boundary approach.
Nicholas P. Brawand, Marco Govoni, Márton Vörös, and Giulia Galli
We analyze the performance of the recently proposed screened exchange constant functional (SX) (Phys. Rev. X 2016, 10, 642) on the GW100 test set, and we discuss results obtained at different levels of self-consistency. The SX functional is a generalization of dielectric dependent hybrid functionals to finite systems, it is non-empirical and depends on the average screening of the exchange interaction. We compare results for ionization potentials obtained with SX to those of CCSD(T) calculations and experiments and we find excellent agreement, on par with recent state of the art methods based on many body perturbation theory. Applying SX perturbatively to correct PBE eigenvalues yields improved results in most cases, except for ionic molecules, for which wave function self-consistency is instead crucial. Calculations where wave functions and the screened exchange constant (αSX) are determined self-consistently, and those where αSX is fixed to the value determined within PBE, yield results of comparable accuracy. Perturbative G0W0 corrections of eigenvalues obtained with self-consistent αSX are small on average, for all molecules in the GW100 test set.
Meng Shen, Honghao Li, and Monica Olvera de la Cruz
Tuan Anh Pham, Marco Govoni, Robert Seidel, Stephen E. Bradforth, Eric Schwegler, and Giulia Galli
Predicting the electronic properties of aqueous liquids has been a long-standing challenge for quantum mechanical methods. Yet it is a crucial step in understanding and predicting the key role played by aqueous solutions and electrolytes in a wide variety of emerging energy and environmental technologies, including battery and photoelectrochemical cell design. Here we propose an efficient and accurate approach to predict the electronic properties of aqueous solutions, based on the combination of firstprinciples methods and experimental validation using state-of-the-art spectroscopic measurements. We present results of the photoelectron spectra of a broad range of solvated ions, showing that firstprinciples molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations using dielectric hybrid functionals provide a quantitative description of the electronic properties of the solvent and solutes, including excitation energies. The proposed computational framework is general and applicable to other liquids, thereby offering great promise in understanding and engineering solutions and liquid electrolytes for a variety of important energy technologies.
Matthew Goldey, Nicholas Brawand, Márton Vörös, and Giulia Galli
The in silico design of novel complex materials for energy conversion requires accurate, ab initio simulation of charge transport. In this work, we present an implementation of constrained density functional theory (CDFT) for the calculation of parameters for charge transport in the hopping regime. We verify our implementation against literature results for molecular systems, and we discuss the dependence of results on numerical parameters and the choice of localization potentials. In addition, we compare CDFT results with those of other commonly used methods for simulating charge transport between nanoscale building blocks. We show that some of these methods give unphysical results for thermally disordered configurations, while CDFT proves to be a viable and robust approach.
Lucas W. Antony, Nicholas E. Jackson, Ivan Lyubimov, Venkatram Vishwanath, Mark D. Ediger, and Juan J. de Pablo
Organic glass films formed by physical vapor deposition exhibit enhanced stability relative to those formed by conventional liquid cooling and aging techniques. Recently, experimental and computational evidence has emerged indicating that the average molecular orientation can be tuned by controlling the substrate temperature at which these “stable glasses” are grown. In this work, we present a comprehensive all-atom simulation study of ethylbenzene, a canonical stable-glass former, using a computational film formation procedure that closely mimics the vapor deposition process. Atomistic studies of experimentally formed vapor-deposited glasses have not been performed before, and this study therefore begins by verifying that the model and method utilized here reproduces key structural features observed experimentally. Having established agreement between several simulated and experimental macroscopic observables, simulations are used to examine the substrate temperature dependence of molecular orientation. The results indicate that ethylbenzene glasses are anisotropic, depending upon substrate temperature, and that this dependence can be understood from the orientation present at the surface of the equilibrium liquid. By treating ethylbenzene as a simple model for molecular semiconducting materials, a quantum-chemical analysis is then used to show that the vapor-deposited glasses exhibit decreased energetic disorder and increased magnitude of the mean-squared transfer integral relative to isotropic, liquid-cooled films, an effect that is attributed to the anisotropic ordering of the molecular film. These results suggest a novel structure–function simulation strategy capable of tuning the electronic properties of organic semiconducting glasses prior to experimental deposition, which could have considerable potential for organic electronic materials design.
Federico Giberti, Márton Vörös, and Giulia Galli
Heterogeneous nanostructures, such as quantum dots (QDs) embedded in solid matrices or core–shell nanoparticles, are promising platforms for a wide variety of applications, including phosphors with increased quantum yield, photocatalysis, and solar energy conversion. However, characterizing and controlling their interfacial morphology and defects, which greatly influence their electronic properties, have proven difficult in numerous cases. Here we carried out atomistic calculations on chalcogenide nanostructured materials, i.e., PbSe QDs in CdSe matrices and CdSe embedded in PbSe, and we established how interfacial and core structures affect their electronic properties. In particular, we showed that defects present at interfaces of PbSe nanoparticles and CdSe matrices give rise to detrimental intragap states, degrading the performance of photovoltaic devices. Instead, the electronic gaps of the inverted system (CdSe dots in PbSe) are clean, indicating that this material has superior electronic properties for solar applications. In addition, our calculations predicted that the core structure of CdSe and in turn its band gap may be tuned by applying pressure to the PbSe matrix, providing a means to engineering the properties of new functional materials.
Hadi Ramezani-Dakhel, Monirosadat Sadati, Mohammad Rahimi, Abelardo Ramirez-Hernandez, Benoît Roux, and Juan J. de Pablo
The ordered environment presented by liquid crystals at interfaces enables a range of novel functionalities that is only now beginning to be exploited in applications ranging from light focusing devices to biosensors. One key feature of liquid crystals is that molecular events occurring at an interface propagate over large distances through the bulk. In spite of their importance, our fundamental understanding of liquid crystal–water and liquid crystal–air interfaces remains limited. In this work, we present results from large-scale atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on the organization of the nematic and isotropic phases of the nitrile-containing mesogenic molecule 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) in the vicinity of vacuum and aqueous interfaces. Hybrid boundary conditions are imposed by confining 5CB films between vacuum and an aqueous medium to examine how those two types of interfaces influence the specific structural arrangement and ordering of 5CB. Consistent with experiments, our results indicate that 5CB exhibits homeotropic anchoring at the vacuum interface, and planar alignment at aqueous interfaces. Two-dimensional molecular dynamics potential of mean force calculations and average polarization densities show that the polar nitrile group of 5CB remains hydrated near the aqueous interface, where it modulates the orientation of water molecules. Estimates of the anchoring strength reveal an oscillatory decay and a semilinear decay with distance from the interface in vacuum and water, respectively.
Monirosadat Sadati, Hadi Ramezani-Dakhel, Wei Bu, Emre Sevgen, Zhu Liang, Cem Erol, Mohammad Rahimi, Nader Taheri Qazvini, Binhua Lin, Nicholas L. Abbott, Benoı̂t Roux, Mark L. Schlossman, and Juan J. de Pablo
Numerous applications of liquid crystals rely on control of molecular orientation at an interface. However, little is known about the precise molecular structure of such interfaces. In this work, synchrotron X-ray reflectivity measurements, accompanied by large-scale atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, are used for the first time to reconstruct the air-liquid crystal interface of a nematic material, namely, 4-pentyl-4′-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The results are compared to those for 4-octyl-4′-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) which, in addition to adopting isotropic and nematic states, can also form a smectic phase. Our findings indicate that the air interface imprints a highly ordered structure into the material; such a local structure then propagates well into the bulk of the liquid crystal, particularly for nematic and smectic phases.
Alex P. Gaiduk and Giulia Galli
Determining how the structure of water is modified by the presence of salts is instrumental to understanding the solvation of biomolecules and, in general, the role played by salts in biochemical processes. However, the extent of hydrogen bonding disruption induced by salts remains controversial. We performed extensive first-principles simulations of solutions of a simple salt (NaCl) and found that, while the cation does not significantly change the structure of water beyond the first solvation shell, the anion has a further reaching effect, modifying the hydrogen-bond network even outside its second solvation shell. We found that a distinctive fingerprint of hydrogen bonding modification is the change in polarizability of water molecules. Molecular dipole moments are instead insensitive probes of long-range modifications induced by Na+ and Cl– ions. Though noticeable, the long-range effect of Cl– is expected to be too weak to affect solubility of large biomolecules.
Yuping He and Giulia Galli
We carried out calculations based on density functional theory to investigate the electronic, vibrational, and dielectric properties of mixed halide perovskites CH3NH3 AI3–xClx with A = Pb and Sn. Computed free energies indicated that Cl mixed systems may be formed only for Cl concentrations not exceeding 1019 cm–3, and phonon calculations showed that the disorder induced in the host lattice by the presence of a smaller halogen is responsible for mechanical instabilities. However, we found that the presence of chloride may be beneficial to the electronic properties of the perovskites. Chloride anions cause the organic cations to be displaced from the center of the cage; such a displacement induces preferential orientations of the cation dipole, which in turn are responsible for notable changes in the dielectric properties of the material and possibly for the formation of local ferroelectric domains. The latter are instrumental in separating electron hole pairs and hence in contributing to long charge-carrier diffusion lengths, in spite of polarons being more likely formed in mixed perovksites than in CH3NH3 AI3.
Daniel Reid, Ivan Lyubimov, M. D. Ediger, and Juan J. de Pablo
Glass films prepared by a process of physical vapour deposition have been shown to have thermodynamic and kinetic stability comparable to those of ordinary glasses aged for thousands of years. A central question in the study of vapour-deposited glasses, particularly in light of new knowledge regarding anisotropy in these materials, is whether the ultra-stable glassy films formed by vapour deposition are ever equivalent to those obtained by liquid cooling. Here we present a computational study of vapour deposition for a two-dimensional glass forming liquid using a methodology, which closely mimics experiment. We find that for the model considered here, structures that arise in vapour-deposited materials are statistically identical to those observed in ordinary glasses, provided the two are compared at the same inherent structure energy. We also find that newly deposited hot molecules produce cascades of hot particles that propagate far into the film, possibly influencing the relaxation of the material.
Nicholas P. Brawand, Márton Vörös, Marco Govoni, and Giulia Galli
The accurate prediction of electronic and optical properties of molecules and solids is a persistent challenge for methods based on density functional theory. We propose a generalization of dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals to finite systems where the definition of the mixing fraction of exact and semilocal exchange is physically motivated, nonempirical, and system dependent. The proposed functional yields ionization potentials, and fundamental and optical gaps of many, diverse molecular systems in excellent agreement with experiments, including organic and inorganic molecules and semiconducting nanocrystals. We further demonstrate that this hybrid functional gives the correct alignment between energy levels of the exemplary TTF-TCNQ donor-acceptor system.
Michael A. Boles, Michael Engel, and Dmitri V. Talapin
Chemical methods developed over the past two decades enable preparation of colloidal nanocrystals with uniform size and shape. These Brownian objects readily order into superlattices. Recently, the range of accessible inorganic cores and tunable surface chemistries dramatically increased, expanding the set of nanocrystal arrangements experimentally attainable. In this review, we discuss efforts to create next-generation materials via bottom-up organization of nanocrystals with preprogrammed functionality and self-assembly instructions. This process is often driven by both interparticle interactions and the influence of the assembly environment. The introduction provides the reader with a practical overview of nanocrystal synthesis, self-assembly, and superlattice characterization. We then summarize the theory of nanocrystal interactions and examine fundamental principles governing nanocrystal self-assembly from hard and soft particle perspectives borrowed from the comparatively established fields of micrometer colloids and block copolymer assembly. We outline the extensive catalog of superlattices prepared to date using hydrocarbon-capped nanocrystals with spherical, polyhedral, rod, plate, and branched inorganic core shapes, as well as those obtained by mixing combinations thereof. We also provide an overview of structural defects in nanocrystal superlattices. We then explore the unique possibilities offered by leveraging nontraditional surface chemistries and assembly environments to control superlattice structure and produce nonbulk assemblies. We end with a discussion of the unique optical, magnetic, electronic, and catalytic properties of ordered nanocrystal superlattices, and the coming advances required to make use of this new class of solids.
Wooram Park, Sin-Jung Park, Soojeong Cho, Heejun Shin, Young-Seok Jung, Byeongdu Lee, Kun Na, and Dong-Hyun Kim
We developed a thermoswitchable polymeric photosensitizer (T-PPS) by conjugating PS (Pheophorbide-a, PPb-a) to a temperature-responsive polymer backbone of biocompatible hydroxypropyl cellulose. Self-quenched PS molecules linked in close proximity by π–π stacking in T-PPS were easily transited to an active monomeric state by the temperature-induced phase transition of polymer backbones. The temperature-responsive intermolecular interaction changes of PS molecules in T-PPS were demonstrated in synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and UV–vis spectrophotometer analysis. The T-PPS allowed switchable activation and synergistically enhanced cancer cell killing effect at the hyperthermia temperature (45 °C). Our developed T-PPS has the considerable potential not only as a new class of photomedicine in clinics but also as a biosensor based on temperature responsiveness.
Joshua Lequieu, Andrés Córdoba, Daniel Hinckley, and Juan J. de Pablo
The self-assembly of DNA-conjugated nanoparticles represents a promising avenue toward the design of engineered hierarchical materials. By using DNA to encode nanoscale interactions, macroscale crystals can be formed with mechanical properties that can, at least in principle, be tuned. Here we present in silico evidence that the mechanical response of these assemblies can indeed be controlled, and that subtle modifications of the linking DNA sequences can change the Young’s modulus from 97 kPa to 2.1 MPa. We rely on a detailed molecular model to quantify the energetics of DNA–nanoparticle assembly and demonstrate that the mechanical response is governed by entropic, rather than enthalpic, contributions and that the response of the entire network can be estimated from the elastic properties of an individual nanoparticle. The results here provide a first step toward the mechanical characterization of DNA–nanoparticle assemblies, and suggest the possibility of mechanical metamaterials constructed using DNA.
Joshua Lequieu, Andrés Córdoba, David C. Schwartz, and Juan J. de Pablo
Nucleosomes form the basic unit of compaction within eukaryotic genomes, and their locations represent an important, yet poorly understood, mechanism of genetic regulation. Quantifying the strength of interactions within the nucleosome is a central problem in biophysics and is critical to understanding how nucleosome positions influence gene expression. By comparing to single-molecule experiments, we demonstrate that a coarse-grained molecular model of the nucleosome can reproduce key aspects of nucleosome unwrapping. Using detailed simulations of DNA and histone proteins, we calculate the tension-dependent free energy surface corresponding to the unwrapping process. The model reproduces quantitatively the forces required to unwrap the nucleosome and reveals the role played by electrostatic interactions during this process. We then demonstrate that histone modifications and DNA sequence can have significant effects on the energies of nucleosome formation. Most notably, we show that histone tails contribute asymmetrically to the stability of the outer and inner turn of nucleosomal DNA and that depending on which histone tails are modified, the tension-dependent response is modulated differently.
Xikai Jiang, Jiyuan Li, Xujun Zhao, Jian Qin, Dmitry Karpeev, Juan Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan J. de Pablo,and Olle Heinonen
Large classes of materials systems in physics and engineering are governed by magnetic and electrostatic interactions. Continuum or mesoscale descriptions of such systems can be cast in terms of integral equations, whose direct computational evaluation requires O(N2) operations, where N is the number of unknowns. Such a scaling, which arises from the many-body nature of the relevant Green’s function, has precluded wide-spread adoption of integral methods for solution of large-scale scientific and engineering problems. In this work, a parallel computational approach is presented that relies on using scalable open source libraries and utilizes a kernel-independent Fast Multipole Method (FMM) to evaluate the integrals in O(N) operations, with O(N) memory cost, thereby substantially improving the scalability and efficiency of computational integral methods. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and scalability of our approach in the context of two examples. In the first, we solve a boundary value problem for a ferroelectric/ferromagnetic volume in free space. In the second, we solve an electrostatic problem involving polarizable dielectric bodies in an unbounded dielectric medium. The results from these test cases show that our proposed parallel approach, which is built on a kernel-independent FMM, can enable highly efficient and accurate simulations and allow for considerable flexibility in a broad range of applications.
Vikramjit Singh Rathee, Siyi Qu, William A. Phillip, and Jonathan K. Whitmer
Membrane-based filtration has shown promise in the treatment of municipal and industrial water supplies. Most existing filtration membranes rely on size-selective rejection mechanisms and do not offer a systematic means to tune the chemistry of the membrane and, in turn, the rejection of solutes based on chemical factors. Technological advancements in copolymer self-assembly have permitted the creation of highly porous membranes through arrested microphase separation. The resulting structures exhibit nanoscale pores whose size and chemistry are controlled by the macromolecular architecture of the copolymer precursors. Here, we examine in detail how the structure and chemistry of charge-functionalized copolymers affect their performance as nanofiltration membranes through experiments and coarse-grained molecular simulation of membranes formed from poly(acrylonitrile-r-oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-r-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(AN-r-OEGMA-r-GMA)). Charge-selective moieties were introduced into the membranes through reactions with diamine salts of varying length, enabling these membranes to offer preferential rejection of multivalent ionic species. Using a minimal model, we explore the essential thermodynamics features of salt rejection in these membranes, and develop a model capable of linking the performance of the membranes to their molecular character through measurement of the underlying free energy profile. Our key result is an effective membrane porosity which quantitatively describes experiments for a wide variety of situations after calibrating a single parameter. These results demonstrate that at moderate ion concentrations and flow rates, the selection of ions is driven predominantly by equilibrium thermodynamics. Going forward, the ability of the model to capture the rejection of dissolved solutes can be leveraged to design optimized membranes for targeted performance profiles in silico before undertaking time consuming batteries of Edisonian experiments.
Hythem Sidky and Jonathan K. Whitmer
A free energy perturbation method is used to systematically study the elastic properties of four common Gay–Berne nematogenic models; two with a length-to-diameter ratio κ = 3 [(3, 5, 1, 2) and (3, 5, 1, 3)], a model with κ = 4.4 parameterised for p-terphenyl (4.4, 20, 1, 1), and a discogen with κ = 0.345 (0.345, 0.2, 1, 2). In accordance with previous measurements, we find that for κ = 3, models, . We additionally find the latter two models in particular accurately capture the experimentally measured elastic ratios in apolar achiral systems. The (4.4, 20, 1, 1) model reproduces the elastic constant ratios of p-azoxyanisole remarkably well, and maps to within 30% of the absolute. The (0.345, 0.2, 1, 2) model elastic constants exhibit an unusual temperature dependence similar to recent experimental studies. Here we find , in line with theoretical predictions. All models deviate from the mean-field expectation kii ∝ S2. These results represent a crucial first step towards quantitatively accurate coarse-grained liquid crystalline models of self-assembly and response, enabling one to choose a Gay–Berne model based on its measured elastic ratios rather than just its shape and energy anisotropy.
Peter Scherpelz, Marco Govoni, Ikutaro Hamada, and Giulia Galli
We present an implementation of G0W0 calculations including spin–orbit coupling (SOC) enabling investigations of large systems, with thousands of electrons, and we discuss results for molecules, solids, and nanocrystals. Using a newly developed set of molecules with heavy elements (called GW-SOC81), we find that, when based upon hybrid density functional calculations, fully relativistic (FR) and scalar-relativistic (SR) G0W0 calculations of vertical ionization potentials both yield excellent performance compared to experiment, with errors below 1.9%. We demonstrate that while SR calculations have higher random errors, FR calculations systematically underestimate the VIP by 0.1 to 0.2 eV. We further verify that SOC effects may be well approximated at the FR density functional level and then added to SR G0W0 results for a broad class of systems. We also address the use of different root-finding algorithms for the G0W0 quasiparticle equation and the significant influence of including d electrons in the valence partition of the pseudopotential for G0W0 calculations. Finally, we present statistical analyses of our data, highlighting the importance of separating definitive improvements from those that may occur by chance due to a limited number of samples. We suggest the statistical analyses used here will be useful in the assessment of the accuracy of a large variety of electronic structure methods.
Hythem Sidky and Jonathan K. Whitmer
Utilizing density-of-states simulations, we perform a full mapping of the phase behavior and elastic responses of binary liquid crystalline mixtures represented by the multicomponent Lebwohl–Lasher model. Our techniques are able to characterize the complete phase diagram, including nematic–nematic phase separation predicted by mean-field theories, but previously not observed in simulations. Mapping this phase diagram permits detailed study of elastic properties across the miscible nematic region. Importantly, we observe for the first time local phase separation and disordering driven by the application of small linear perturbations near the transition temperature and more significantly through nonlinear stresses. These findings are of key importance in systems of blended nematics which contain particulate inclusions, or are otherwise confined.
Alex P. Gaiduk, Marco Govoni, Robert Seidel, Jonathan Skone, Bernd Winter, and Giulia Galli
We present a combined computational and experimental study of the photoelectron spectrum of a simple aqueous solution of NaCl. Measurements were conducted on microjets, and first-principles calculations were performed using hybrid functionals and many-body perturbation theory at the G0W0 level, starting with wave functions computed in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show excellent agreement between theory and experiments for the positions of both the solute and solvent excitation energies on an absolute energy scale and for peak intensities. The best comparison was obtained using wave functions obtained with dielectric-dependent self-consistent and range-separated hybrid functionals. Our computational protocol opens the way to accurate, predictive calculations of the electronic properties of electrolytes, of interest to a variety of energy problems.
Rui Zhang, Tyler Roberts, Igor S. Aranson, and Juan J. de Pablo
Liquid crystals (LCs) display many of the flow characteristics of liquids but exhibit long range orientational order. In the nematic phase, the coupling of structure and flow leads to complex hydrodynamic effects that remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we consider the hydrodynamics of a nematic LC in a hybrid cell, where opposite walls have conflicting anchoring boundary conditions, and we employ a 3D lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the time-dependent flow patterns that can arise. Due to the symmetry breaking of the director field within the hybrid cell, we observe that at low to moderate shear rates, the volumetric flow rate under Couette and Poiseuille flows is different for opposite flow directions. At high shear rates, the director field may undergo a topological transition which leads to symmetric flows. By applying an oscillatory pressure gradient to the channel, a net volumetric flow rate is found to depend on the magnitude and frequency of the oscillation, as well as the anchoring strength. Taken together, our findings suggest several intriguing new applications for LCs in microfluidic devices.